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Rostec launches production of a substitute for the Makarov pistol in 2019

Military defenceWeb

18 January 2019 – The Central Scientific–Research Institute for Precision Machine Engineering (TSNIITOCHMASH, a part of Rostec) has successfully completed testing of a new Udav pistol that should become a substitute for the Makarov pistol.Batch
'18 January 2019 – The Central Scientific–Research Institute for Precision Machine Engineering (TSNIITOCHMASH, a part of Rostec) has successfully completed testing of a new Udav pistol that should become a substitute for the Makarov pistol.Batch production of the new pistol will be launched in spring 2019.In terms of deadly force, Udav will become one of the most powerful pistols in the world.The caliber of its cartridge is 9×21 mm. 9 mm is the bullet diameter and 21 mm is the shell length.The Udav bullet penetrates bulletproof vests made of two 1.4 mm titanium plates and 30 layers of 4 mm thick Kevlar or steel sheets from the distance of 100 meters. “The pistol came up perfectly in a whole set of tests – e.g. at extreme temperatures from -70 to +50 degrees, as well as in high humidity conditions simulated in special thermal and low-pressure chambers.In particular, the tests simulated the conditions of dry desert, Arctic conditions and high humidity,” said Sergey Abramov, Industrial Director of the cluster for conventional weapons, ammunition and special chemistry in Rostec State Corporation . The pistol will be produced at TSNIITOCHMASH.The enterprise has the required technical documentation and can provide the high quality of assembly. “The pistol repeatedly showed its stability in simulated situations when bullets were stopped in a bore.They were pushed out with a next shot and the pistol continued working,” said Albert Bakov, General Director of TSNIITOCHMASH . The new Udav pistol has been developed for the Ministry of Defence and Russian law enforcement agencies.It is going to replace the Makarov pistol (PM), which is now used by the Russian army and police.PM is the main hand weapon of army and law enforcement officers in some ex-Warsaw Pact countries and in China.Rostec continues implementing an ambitious weapons cluster development program in accordance with the approved strategy, the main objectives of which are the revenue growth by an average of 17% in ruble equivalent by 2025, improvement of operational efficiency, and entering the world markets.Rostec Corporation is a Russian corporation that was established in 2007 to facilitate the development, production and export of high-tech industrial products designed for civilian and military applications.The Corporation comprises over 700 organisations that are currently part of eleven holding companies operating in the military-industrial complex and three holding companies working in the civilian industry, as well as over 80 directly managed organisations.Rostec’s portfolio includes well-known brands such as AVTOVAZ, KAMAZ, Concern Kalashnikov, Russian Helicopters, UralVagonZavod, etc.Rostec companies are located in 60 constituent entities of the Russian Federation and supply products to the markets of more than 100 countries.In 2017 the consolidated revenue of Rostec reached 1 trillion 589 billion rubles, while the consolidated net income and EBITDA amounted to 121 and 305 billion rubles respectively.In 2017 the average salary in the Corporation was 46,800 rubles.According to Rostec’s strategy, the main objective of the Corporation is to ensure that Russia has a technological advantage in highly competitive global markets.Rostec’s key objectives include the introduction of a new techno-economic paradigm and digitalisation of the Russian economy. . The post Rostec launches production of a substitute for the Makarov pistol in 2019 appeared first on defenceWeb .'

Defence minister sounds budget alarm bells

Military defenceWeb

For the second year running, Minister for Defence and Military Veterans Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula has sounded alarm bells about the continuing ability of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) to carry out its constitutional mandate.
'For the second year running, Minister for Defence and Military Veterans Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula has sounded alarm bells about the continuing ability of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) to carry out its constitutional mandate.Introducing the R50.5 billion Defence and Military Veterans 2019 budget in Parliament on Wednesday, Mapisa-Nqakula reiterated that the Department of Defence had been forced to continuously adjust its plans downwards in response to the declining budget.As a result, she says, “we’ve been forced to adopt a short-term view with an increasingly constrained value proposition to South Africa and its people.Strategically, we are now becoming forced to transition from being mandate driven to being funding driven.” This means that the Defence Force can only perform to the extent that it is resourced and funded, which has declined since the previous year.In her pre-2018 budget presentation, Mapisa-Nqakula noted that Defence was subjected to a Medium Term Framework (MTF) baseline reduction of R18.2 billion.This year, she says, an additional R4.7 billion reduction has been demanded, the majority of which lies in the compensation of employees.This amounts to a nominal R22.9 billion reduction in the Defence allocation over a five year period.This reduction will have a direct impact on the training, equipment, sustainment, core capabilities and operational output of the SANDF.As if this was not severe enough, the funding dilemma will be compounded by an even greater baseline reduction of 5% for 2020, 6% for 2021 and 7% for 2022, equating to an additional reduction of R9.6 billion.The projected R2.9 billion shortfall in this year’s compensation of employees, Mapisa-Nqakula stated, can only be covered by funding from the operating budget. “Over the MTF, … the shortfall increases to R4 billion, R4.5 billion and R5.5 billion respectively, with no provisions in the operating budget to cover the shortfall,” she continued, “This House should be very concerned that the funding for defence capital equipment is greatly reduced from 2021 onwards.” The Minister had sounded a warning already in her 2018 budget speech, but it would appear that the rate of decline has accelerated, beyond the Defence Force’s ability to control and absorb the ongoing cuts. “The Defence force is becoming progressively more unsustainable in terms of declining defence allocations and we’ve now reached a point where the Republic must decide on the kind of Defence Force it wants and what it can afford,” she said.She asked if Parliament was satisfied if the current resourcing of the Defence Force is consistent with the obligations placed on it by the Constitution.Deputy Minister Thabang Makwetla noted that the limited budget only provided for the deployment of 15 units for border safeguarding instead of the 22 units required to effectively safeguard landline borders.Furthermore, he said that the funding constraints have caused the acquisition of new military equipment to stagnate.Projects affected include the new Army infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) and long-term plans to address the South African Air Force’s ageing Oryx helicopter fleet, Dakota maritime aircraft fleet and a new strategic airlift capability.In response, DA defence spokesperson Kobus Marais noted that comparable countries with a GDP growth rate of 3-4% spend 2-3% on their defence budget.South Africa had a GDP growth rate of around 1%, but only allocates 0.93% of its annual GDP to defence. “We are approaching the cliff at an alarming pace,” he stated in his reply to Parliament, “This is not in the best interest of our citizens and our integrity” in terms of the Constitution.Marais said that the Defence Force required R80 billion to fund its current programs and projects, but only R50.5 billion was approved. “This presents nominal increase of 4.2% on the previous year, which is a decrease of 7.5% in real terms” he explained.The department will spend 60% of its budget on Human Resources and 40% on operations, leaving only 10% for equipment. “This is not enough to maintain assets and equipment of the Defence Force, not to say the procurement of new equipment,” he lamented.With the current budget proposals indicating a drastic cut in operations, such as flight and sea hours and new equipment procurement, Marais says this must be seen as a red flag. . The post Defence minister sounds budget alarm bells appeared first on defenceWeb .'

Send In The Troops: Congo Raises The Stakes On Illegal Mining

Military iAfrica.com

A Congolese army officer arrived in the village of Kafwaya in June and warned residents not to trespass on a major Chinese copper and cobalt mine next door.
'A Congolese army officer arrived in the village of Kafwaya in June and warned residents not to trespass on a major Chinese copper and cobalt mine next door.As night fell about a week later, the soldiers moved in. “They didn’t say anything to anyone,” said Fabien Ilunga, an official in Kafwaya, which is home to thousands of miners eking out a living by illegally exploiting the nearby mineral resources. “The army started to burn down the tarpaulin houses.” Deploying soldiers to clear tens of thousands of illegal informal miners from mining concessions is a new approach by the authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who have wrestled with the problem for decades.Years of negotiations, alternative employment programmes and sporadic interventions by the police have all failed to resolve the issue, which has long been a concern for mining companies sitting on some of the world’s richest mineral deposits.But using soldiers to keep illegal miners out of vast concessions is likely to be a protracted and potentially violent battle, analysts say.The United Nations has often accused the Congolese army of human rights abuses.Tech giants and automakers that use Congolese cobalt in smartphones and electric cars are already trying to clean up their supply chains after reports of child labour at informal mines in Congo.Any prolonged violence between soldiers and miners could unsettle investors again. “Any further involvement of state security forces on mine sites will increase miners’ social risk exposure, which is already probably the biggest risk they face,” said Indigo Ellis, Africa analyst for risk consultancy Verisk Maplecroft.The Congolese authorities say informal miners are endangering the country’s interests and the army deployments are also meant to prevent the kinds of accidents that killed 43 illegal miners at a Glencore project on 27 June.HOMES TORCHED Since the army deployed in southeastern Congo, thousands of illegal diggers have been pushed off Glencore’s Kamoto Copper Company (KCC) mine and China Molybdenum’s Tenke Fungurume Mine (TFM). In the case of Kafwaya, which is in China Molybdenum’s 1,800 square kilometre TFM concession, local activists said a few days after the army’s initial warning on June 13, soldiers set market stalls ablaze and put up camp nearby.Less than a week later, soldiers torched dozens of homes belonging to miners and farmers alike and ransacked a school, residents and a local activist group said.They said the fires severely burned a 3-year-old girl and a 14-month-old boy who were caught inside their homes.General John Numbi, who led the operation, denied anyone was hurt.Asked later about the specific allegations, he sent a text message that just said: “Let’s be serious.” China Molybdenum declined to comment.TFM’s deputy general director, Kasongo Bin Nassor, said at a conference last week that the mine had asked the government to do more to secure the concession, but did not request the army be deployed.He said the mine had been invaded and illegal miners had roughed up TFM employees, damaged machinery and made it hard to access certain parts of the concession. “Once you have metals that require serious investment, you cannot encourage artisanal mining,” Bin Nassor said.General Numbi is currently under US, EU and Swiss sanctions for reportedly threatening violence against opposition politicians in 2016.He denies any wrongdoing.STRATEGIC INTERESTS The risk of ending up with Congolese cobalt mined by children in dangerous conditions has already prompted some car companies to look for alternatives.Tesla is trying to use more nickel – which is mainly sourced from Indonesia, the Philippines, Russia and New Caledonia – and less cobalt in car batteries.Tesla says its next-generation battery won’t use cobalt at all.BMW, meanwhile, said in April it would buy cobalt directly from mines in Australia and Morocco.General Motors said it did not purchase cobalt directly and referred questions to LG Chem, its battery supplier.LG Chem said it was using blockchain technology in partnership with automakers Ford Motor Co. and Volkswagen (VOWG_p.DE), tech firm IBM and Huayou Cobalt to trace ethically sourced minerals, including cobalt.Apple said since 2016 its suppliers in Congo have taken part in third-party audits to ensure they abide by a code of conduct.The U.S. tech giant dropped two cobalt refiners and smelters last year.But with 64% of global cobalt supplies coming from Congo in 2018, according to the United States Geological Survey, it will be difficult for companies to cut the country out of their supply chains entirely. “In the near term, they know and accept that they are going to have to buy cobalt or products at least in some part from the DRC,” said Caspar Rawles, senior cobalt analyst at consultancy Benchmark Mineral Intelligence.Glencore said its KCC concession had not asked the army to intervene and while troops were operating around the mine, they had not entered the site.The army said it had evicted 20,000 miners.The miners responded with a series of protests during which stores were looted and at least 20 people were arrested.The commodities trading and mining company based in Switzerland referred Reuters to a letter its managing director wrote to Congo’s President Felix Tshisekedi urging Congolese forces to respect human rights and use the least force possible.IndustriALL, an international union, said its affiliate at KCC had asked regional Governor Richard Muyej to address the issue of illegal miners but said it opposed sending in the army. “There are strategic interests of the country at stake,” said General Numbi. “If the investors complain … the government will take measures (to deploy the army) if it decides the police cannot handle it.” MINING ALTERNATIVES The industrial copper and cobalt mines in the southeast of Congo are far from the conflict zones in the east of the country where there are gold, tin, tantalum and tungsten mines controlled by militias and army commanders.Those eastern areas of Congo have already been targeted by US legislation seeking to stop so-called conflict minerals ending up in products such as smartphones.But analysts say clashes between the army and miners in the copper belt where TFM and KCC are located could further unsettle investors already worried by the reports of child labour and dangerous conditions in artisanal mines. “It’s not entirely clear whether you can operate a responsible mine inside the DRC or not.I genuinely do not know whether you can,” said one mining investor, who asked not to be named for fear of angering authorities.Clashes earlier this year between police and stone-throwing miners in the southern Lualaba province, where TFM and KCC are located, killed three officers, convincing authorities that better-armed forces were needed to take on the miners.Local police and private contractors who are supposed to secure mines are often bought off by the illegal miners and traders, analysts say, strengthening the case for intervention by the army.The government has sought to convince informal miners to leave the sector in favour of agriculture, and mining companies have offered alternatives too.Glencore, for example, supports cooperatives working in farming, welding, sewing and carpentry.But informal miners say they don’t earn nearly as much through these activities and often begrudge industrial mines claiming the richest concessions, sometimes on land where their families have lived for generations.An estimated 170,000 small-scale miners operate across Lualaba, and their numbers appear to be growing.Often equipped with just shovels, buckets and straw sacks, they burrow deep underground in search of ore.Accidents are common. “There are cave-ins all the time on many of these sites,” said one official at an industrial mine in Congo. “Wherever there is cobalt in the DRC, there will be artisanal miners.” In the absence of long-term economic alternatives for the illegal miners, they are likely to return to the concessions, pushing soldiers to resort to ever harsher measures, said one mining consultant, who asked not to be named. “Displacing artisanals is like whack-a-mole,” he said. “What they will end up doing is just brutalising the miners in order to make them too afraid to come back.” EWN . The post Send In The Troops: Congo Raises The Stakes On Illegal Mining appeared first on iAfrica.com .'

Special Official Funeral For Late Struggle Veteran Lesiba Maphoto

Military iAfrica.com

The late struggle veteran Lesiba “Bra Ike” Maphoto will be honoured with a special official funeral this Sunday.President Cyril Ramaphosa announced on Wednesday afternoon that he would deliver the eulogy at the funeral.
'The late struggle veteran Lesiba “Bra Ike” Maphoto will be honoured with a special official funeral this Sunday.President Cyril Ramaphosa announced on Wednesday afternoon that he would deliver the eulogy at the funeral.The president has also declared days of mourning from now until Sunday and during that period all flags will fly at half-mast.Maphoto was a member of the African National Congress (ANC) and its armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe.The Presidency said that he left South Africa in 1961 and underwent military and political training in Beirut and the former Soviet Union.He then joined Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1963.Maphoto was arrested by the Rhodesian army when he was fighting in the alliance between the ANC and the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army to establish infiltration routes for liberation forces and released by then-President Robert Mugabe’s government in 1980 after independence.He received the Order of Luthuli in Silver from former President Thabo Mbeki in 2006 and the Order of Gold for bravery in 2012 from the Department of Military Veterans.The South African National Defence Force is expected to perform ceremonial elements as part of the funeral proceedings on Sunday.EWN . The post Special Official Funeral For Late Struggle Veteran Lesiba Maphoto appeared first on iAfrica.com .'

R38 million allocated towards establishing Investigative Directorate

Military defenceWeb

Justice and Constitutional Development Minister Ronald Lamola says the department will provide budgetary support towards the establishment of the NPA’s Investigative Directorate.
'Justice and Constitutional Development Minister Ronald Lamola says the department will provide budgetary support towards the establishment of the NPA’s Investigative Directorate.This comes after President Cyril Ramaphosa announced the establishment of the directorate in his State of the Nation Address in February in a push to tackle corruption head on at a time the country finds itself recovering from the effects of State capture.Lamola said fighting fraud and corruption forms part of the department’s core mandate and that the levels of brazen corruption and avarice that are seen in society can and must be halted. “The various commissions of inquiry currently underway are part of the process of addressing fraud and corruption.The department will continue to provide the necessary administrative support to enable these commissions of inquiry to do their work. “In addition, the department will also provide budgetary support to the establishment of the Investigative Directorate, under the auspices of the NPA [National Prosecuting Authority] to deal with all cases emanating from these commissions.” Lamola said the Investigative Directorate will work collaboratively with the Special Investigating Unit (SIU), the SIU Special Tribunal and the Directorate of Priority Crimes Investigations (DPCI) to ensure that perpetrators of acts of fraud and corruption are brought to book speedily. “The regulations of the Tribunal will be finalised shortly to enable this important institution to commence with the task of recovering moneys stolen through corruption and maladministration,” he said.Shamila Batohi, the National Director of Public Prosecutions, said R38 million would be allocated to the new Directorate for start-up purposes, and that over a three-year period, she expects over R200 million to be allocated towards the running of the new unit. “But this is for start-up costs at this stage.We have also made a bid to the CARA [Criminal Asset Recovery Account] fund for funds that we will require for the first year.The total amount is about R200 million over three years.We have made a bid to the CARA fund and we are quite confident that we will be successful in that bid,” she said.Modernising the courts system Lamola said, meanwhile, that the modernisation of the justice system lies at the heart of the transformation trajectory of the department.A total of R1.3 billion has been allocated for the department’s modernisation programme. “As such, through the Integrated Justice System (IJS), the department is driving a multi-department effort to increase the probability of successful investigation, prosecution, punishment and rehabilitation of offenders. “The Court Recording Technology (CRT) system has been rolled out to over 2 000 courts. “A further 146 mobile recorders are used in periodical courts.The CRT enables efficient recording and storage of court proceedings.This system will also improve operational efficiencies in courts.” Lamola said the modernisation efforts will also extend to the Master’s offices where work is underway on the Master’s Online project, which is scheduled to be implemented by 2020.The project aims to streamline the Trust registration process and will assist in curbing fraud. “The condition of our courts as service points to the public, are a top priority.A total of 25 courts will be part of the total facilities management solution implemented by the Department of Public Works. “This will bring relief to users of our facilities as breakdowns in equipment often disrupt court sittings and contribute to delays in the finalisation of cases.The department is also implementing an in-source model, which allows sentenced inmates and participants in the Extended Public Works Programme to be utilised for minor maintenance work,” said the Minister. . The post R38 million allocated towards establishing Investigative Directorate appeared first on defenceWeb .'

DR Congo raises the stakes on illegal mining

Military defenceWeb

A Congolese army officer arrived in Kafwaya village in June and warned residents not to trespass on a major Chinese copper and cobalt mine next door.
'A Congolese army officer arrived in Kafwaya village in June and warned residents not to trespass on a major Chinese copper and cobalt mine next door.As night fell about a week later soldiers moved in. “They didn’t say anything to anyone,” said Fabien Ilunga, an official in Kafwaya, home to thousands of miners eking out a living illegally exploiting nearby mineral resources. “The army started to burn down tarpaulin houses.” Deploying soldiers to clear thousands of illegal informal miners from mining concessions is a new approach by the authorities in Democratic Republic of Congo, wrestling with the problem for decades.Years of negotiations, alternative employment programmes and sporadic interventions by police all failed to resolve the issue, long a concern for mining companies exploiting some of the world’s richest mineral deposits.Using soldiers to keep illegal miners out of vast concessions is likely to be protracted and potentially violent analysts say.The United Nations has accused the Congolese army of human rights abuses.Tech giants and automakers using Congolese cobalt in smart phones and electric cars are cleaning up supply chains after reports of child labour at informal mines in Congo.Any prolonged violence between soldiers and miners could unsettle investors again. “Any further involvement of state security forces on mine sites will increase miners’ social risk exposure, already probably the biggest risk they face,” said Indigo Ellis, Africa analyst for risk consultancy Verisk Maplecroft.Congolese authorities say informal miners endanger the country’s interests and the army deployments are meant to prevent accidents such as one that killed 43 illegal miners at a Glencore project on June 27.HOMES TORCHED Since the army deployed in south-eastern Congo, thousands of illegal diggers have been pushed off Glencore’s Kamoto Copper Company (KCC) mine and China Molybdenum’s Tenke Fungurume Mine (TFM). In the case of Kafwaya, in China Molybdenum’s 1,800 square kilometre TFM concession, local activists said a few days after the army’s initial warning on June 13, soldiers set market stalls ablaze and put up camp nearby.Less than a week later, soldiers torched dozens of homes belonging to miners and farmers and ransacked a school, residents and a local activist group said.They said the fires severely burned a three-year-old girl and a 14-month-old boy caught inside.General John Numbi, who led the operation, denied anyone was hurt.Asked later about specific allegations, he sent a text message that said: “Let’s be serious.” China Molybdenum declined to comment.TFM’s deputy general director, Kasongo Bin Nassor, said at a conference last week the mine asked government to do more to secure the concession, but did not request the army be deployed.He said the mine was invaded and illegal miners roughed up TFM employees, damaged machinery and made it hard to access parts of the concession. “Once you have metals that require serious investment, you cannot encourage artisanal mining,” Bin Nassor said.General Numbi is currently under US, EU and Swiss sanctions for reportedly threatening violence against opposition politicians in 2016.He denies any wrongdoing.STRATEGIC INTERESTS The risk of ending up with Congolese cobalt mined by children in dangerous conditions has prompted some car companies to look for alternatives.Tesla is trying to use more nickel – mainly sourced from Indonesia, the Philippines, Russia and New Caledonia – and less cobalt in car batteries.Tesla says its next generation battery won’t use cobalt at all.BMW said in April it would buy cobalt directly from mines in Australia and Morocco.General Motors said it did not purchase cobalt directly and referred questions to LG Chem, its battery supplier.LG Chem us using blockchain technology in partnership with automakers Ford Motor Co. and Volkswagen, tech firm IBM and Huayou Cobalt for ethically sourced minerals, including cobalt.Apple said since 2016 its suppliers in Congo have taken part in third-party audits to ensure they abide by a code of conduct.The US tech giant dropped two cobalt refiners and smelters last year.With 64% of global cobalt supplies coming from Congo in 2018, according to the United States Geological Survey, it will be difficult to cut the country out of supply chains. “In the near term, they know and accept they have to buy cobalt or products at least in some part from the DRC,” said Caspar Rawles, senior cobalt analyst at consultancy Benchmark Mineral Intelligence.Glencore said its KCC concession had not asked the army to intervene and while troops were operating around the mine, they had not entered the site.The army said it evicted 20,000 miners.Miners responded with a series of protests during which stores were looted and at least 20 people were arrested.The commodities trading and mining company based in Switzerland referred Reuters to a letter its managing director wrote to Congo’s President Felix Tshisekedi urging Congolese forces to respect human rights and use least force possible.IndustriALL, an international union, said its affiliate at KCC asked regional Governor Richard Muyej to address the issue of illegal miners but opposed sending in the army. “There are strategic interests at stake,” said General Numbi. “If investors complain government will take measures to deploy the army if it decides the police cannot handle it.” MINING ALTERNATIVES The industrial copper and cobalt mines in south-east Congo are far from conflict zones in the east where there are gold, tin, tantalum and tungsten mines controlled by militias and army commanders.The eastern areas of Congo have been targeted by US legislation seeking to stop so-called conflict minerals ending up in products such as smartphones.Analysts say clashes between the army and miners in the copper belt where TFM and KCC are located could further unsettle investors worried by the reports of child labour and dangerous conditions in artisanal mines. “It’s not entirely clear whether you can operate a responsible mine inside the DRC or not.I genuinely do not know whether you can,” said a mining investor, who asked not to be named for fear of angering authorities.Clashes earlier this year between police and stone-throwing miners in southern Lualaba province, where TFM and KCC are located, killed three officers, convincing authorities better armed forces were needed.Local police and private contractors supposed to secure mines are often bought off by illegal miners and traders, analysts say, strengthening the case for intervention by the army.Government sought to convince informal miners to leave in favour of agriculture and mining companies also offered alternatives.Glencore, for example, supports co-operatives working in farming, welding, sewing and carpentry.Informal miners say they don’t earn nearly as much through these activities and begrudge industrial mines claiming the richest concessions, some on land where their families have lived for generations.An estimated 170,000 small-scale miners operate across Lualaba and numbers appear to be growing.Often equipped with just shovels, buckets and straw sacks, they burrow deep underground in search of ore.Accidents are common. “There are cave-ins all the time,” said an official at an industrial mine. “Wherever there is cobalt in the DRC, there will be artisanal miners.” In the absence of long term economic alternatives for the illegal miners, they are likely to return to concessions, pushing soldiers to harsher measures, said another mining consultant, who asked not to be named. “Displacing artisanals is like whack-a-mole,” he said. “What they will end up doing is brutalising miners to make them too afraid to come back.”   . The post DR Congo raises the stakes on illegal mining appeared first on defenceWeb .'